Time Period - 1850-1870
Chapter 7 Wisconsin Our State, Our Story


DEFINE- Civil War.....What does it actually mean?
Opening Activity:
* Define Civil.....Define War.....How can there be a Civil War????
Create a timeline for the following five events: Arrival of Fur Trappers/Traders to WI, arrival of MOST Irish and German immigrants to WI, The date our country was established, The Civil War, ?

Fugitive Slave Act
Civil War
Underground Rail Road

Civil War Photo Gallery - Smithsonian Click Here

Time Line of the Civil War-
North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial


Timeline . . .





January 13-15 — Second Bombardment of Fort Fisher

January 15 — Assault and Capture of Fort Fisher — Casualties: roughly 3,352 on both sides (land and sea). Combined casualties for both battles at Fort Fisher: roughly 3,837 on both sides (land and sea).

January 16 — Confederate evacuation of Fort Holmes on Smith's Island, and Forts Campbell and Caswell on Oak Island (Old Inlet, Cape Fear)

January 19 — Skirmish at Half Moon Battery on Federal Point

January 20 — Capture of blockade-runners Stag and Charlotte at Smithville

January 25 — Capture of British steamer Blenheim

January — Indiana cavalrymen capture a small body of Confederates in Swain County. (WEST)



February 1-7 — Kirk’s Expedition from Newport, Tenn. to Waynesville, N.C. (Haywood County) — Force of 600 men (town sacked and jail burned, liberating jailed Unionists). Home of Confederate leader James R. Love also burned — Skirmish at Soco Creek (with battalion of Thomas’s Legion). (WEST)

February 11 — Engagement at Sugar Loaf

February 12-14 — Union attempt to bypass Hoke's Confederate line at Sugar Loaf fails

February 16-17 — Union advance on Fort Anderson, on the west side of the Cape Fear River

February 17 — Skirmish near Smithville

February 18 — Bombardment of Fort Anderson

February 18 — Skirmish at Orton Pond

February 19 — Capture of Fort Anderson

February 19-20 — Engagement at Town Creek

February 20 — Engagement at Forks Road

February 20 — Union bombardment of river batteries below Wilmington

February 21 — Skirmish at Eagles Island, opposite Wilmington

February 21 — Skirmish at Fort Strong, below Wilmington

February 22 — Union Occupation of Wilmington — Casualties during the advance on Wilmington: roughly 1,150 on both sides.

February 22 — Skirmish at Smith's Creek

February 22 — Action at Northeast Station

February 22 — Gen. Joseph E. Johnston assumes command of Confederate forces opposing Sherman's march through the Carolinas

February 23 — Gen. Braxton Bragg's Confederate forces retreat from Wilmington toward Goldsboro

February 27 —2nd North Carolina Volunteer Infantry (Union) consolidated with 1st North Carolina Infantry




March 4 — Skirmish at Phillips' Crossroads

March 6 — Union forces under Gen. John Schofield advance from New Bern toward Kinston and Goldsboro

March 7-8 — Union army of Gen. William T. Sherman enters North Carolina

March 7 — Skirmish at Rockingham

March 8 — Skirmish at Love's (Blue's) Bridge

March 8-10 — Battle of Wyse Fork (Southwest Creek, below Kinston) — Hoke's Division (Bragg) and a portion of the Army of Tennessee resist Union troops under Schofield during their advance on Goldsboro. Over 1,000 Federal troops captured. Casualties: roughly 2,601 on both sides

March 10 — Battle of Monroe's Crossroads — Cavalry clash between Wade Hampton's Confederates and Judson Kilpatrick's Federals — the first organized resistance against Sherman's army in North Carolina. Casualties: roughly 269 on both sides.

March 10-11 — Expedition from Suffolk, Va. to Murfee’s Depot, N.C. (peripheral)

March 11 — Skirmish at Fayetteville

March 11 — Union Occupation of Fayetteville

March 12-14 — Destruction of Fayetteville Arsenal

March 12 — Destruction of CSS Neuse (Confederate ironclad warship) at Kinston

March 13 — Skirmish at Fayetteville

March 14 — Federal occupation of Kinston

March 14 — Reconnaissance from Fayetteville on Goldsboro Road to Black River, and skirmish

March 14 — Reconnaissance from Fayetteville on Raleigh Road to Silver Run, and skirmish

March 15 — Skirmish near Smith's Mill, Black River

March 15 — Skirmish at South River

March 15 — Confederate Gen. Joseph E. Johnston forms the hodgepodge Army of the South, from four separate commands at his disposal: Remnants of the Army of Tennessee, Hardee's Corps, Hoke's Division (Bragg), and Wade Hampton's cavalry

March 16 — Battle of Averasboro (Taylor's Hole Creek) — Crucial delaying action by Hardee's Confederates, resisting the advance of Sherman's Federal Left Wing. Casualties: roughly 1,682 on both sides.

March 16 — Skirmish at Little Coharie Creek

March 16 — Union Gen. Alfred H. Terry advances with his Provisional Corps from Wilmington toward Goldsboro

March 17 — Skirmish at Averasboro

March 17 — Skirmish at Falling Creek

March 18 — Skirmish at Mingo Creek

March 18 — Skirmish at Bushy Swamp

March 18 — Skirmish near Benton's Crossroads

March 19 — Skirmish at Neuse River Bridge, near Goldsboro

March 19-20 — Skirmishes at Cox's Bridge, Neuse River near Goldsboro

March 19-21 — Battle of Bentonville — the culminating event of the Carolinas Campaign. Johnston's Confederates engage in a major battle with Sherman's forces, in an effort to slow the Union march. After three days of battle, Confederate troops retreat toward Smithfield, leaving the way open for Sherman's army to occupy Goldsboro. Casualties: roughly 4,500 on both sides.

March 20 — Skirmish near Falling Creek

March 21 — Gen. John Schofield's Union forces reach Goldsboro

March 21 — Gen. Alfred Terry's Union forces reach Cox's Bridge on the Neuse River, below Goldsboro

March 22 — Skirmish at Mill Creek Creek

March 22 — Skirmish at Hannah's Creek

March 22 — Skirmish at Black Creek

March 23 — Skirmish at Cox's Bridge, Neuse River near Goldsboro

March 23-24 — Union forces of Sherman, Schofield, and Terry (90,000 men) are united at Goldsboro — the main objective of Sherman's Carolinas Campaign

March 24 — Skirmish near Moccasin Creek

March 28 — Skirmish near Snow Hill

March 28-April 3 — Stoneman's First Raid into Western North Carolina

March 28 — Skirmish at Boone (WEST)

March 28-April 11 — Expedition from Deep Bottom, Va. to near Weldon, N.C., with skirmishes (peripheral)

March 28 — 135th U.S. Colored Troops — organized by Maj. Gen. Francis P. Blair at Goldsboro, and mustered into service at Page Station

March 29 — Skirmish at Wilkesboro (WEST)

March 29 — Skirmish at Mosely Hall

March 31 — Skirmish at Gulley's

March 31 — Skirmish at Hookerton




April 1 — Skirmish near Snow Hill

April 2 — Skirmish near Goldsboro

April 3-11 — Kirby’s Expedition from East Tennessee toward Asheville, N.C. — 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 4th Army Corps — Moved with 900 men through Warm Springs and Marshall to near Asheville — Engagement near Asheville — Returned to East Tennessee, via Greenville, and camped at Lick Creek. (WEST)

April 5-7 — Destruction of U.S. transports on Neuse River

April 8 — Action at Martinsville (WEST)

April 9 — Surrender of Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Courthouse, Va.

April 9-26 — Stoneman's Second Raid into Western North Carolina

April 10 — Skirmish at Boone Hill

April 10 — Skirmish at Moccasin Swamp

April 10 — Skirmish at Nahunta Station

April 11 — Skirmish near Smithfield

April 11 — Federal occupation of Smithfield

April 11 — Skirmish at Beulah

April 11 — Skirmish at Pikeville

April 11 — Skirmish at Shallow Ford (WEST)

April 11 — Skirmish near Mocksville (WEST)

April 11 — Confederate president Jefferson Davis and his cabinet arrive at Greensboro, having evacuated the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va., on April 2

April 12 — Skirmish at Grants Creek, near Salisbury (WEST)

April 12 — Engagement at Salisbury (WEST)

April 12 — Skirmish at Swift Creek

April 12 — Skirmish near Raleigh, Stalling's Station

April 13 — Union Occupation of Raleigh

April 13 — Skirmish near Raleigh

April 13 — Skirmish at Morrisville

April 14 — Skirmish near Morrisville

April 14 — Skirmish at Saunder's Farm

April 14-15 — President Abraham Lincoln is assasinated — shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth, Linclon dies the next day

April 15 — Skirmish near Chapel Hill

April 15 — Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entourage depart Greensboro on horseback, with cavalry escort

April 17 — Action at Catawba River, near Morganton (WEST)

April 18-26 — Suspension of hostilities between Sherman & Johnston

April 18 — Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entourage arrive at Charlotte.

April 20 — Skirmish at Swannanoa Gap (WEST)

April 22 — Skirmish at Howard's Gap (WEST)

April 22 — Confederate cabinet members deliver terms of Sherman-Johnston surrender agreement to President Jefferson Davis at Charlotte.

April 23 — Action near Hendersonville (WEST)

April 26 — Johnston Surrenders to Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham Station (Largest troop surrender of the war, encompassing Confederate forces in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida)

April 26 — Asheville ransacked

April 26 — Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entourage resume their flight, leaving Charlotte en route to South Carolina and Georgia


May — Raid from East Tennessee into Haywood County, N.C. — 2nd N.C. Mounted Infantry (Unionist highlanders organized by Kirk) — Occupation of Waynesville — Skirmish at White Sulphur Springs — Brazen gang raids by bushwhackers in Wilkes, Watauga, Alexander, and Caldwell counties (Wade and Simmons outlaws) — Citizen attack on “Fort Hamby” in Wilkes County (Wade) — Capture of Simmons by Federal cavalrymen. (WEST)

May 6 — Skirmish at White Sulphur Springs (WEST)

May 10 — Confederate President Jefferson Davis is captured in Irwinville, Georgia

May 11-16 — Naval expedition on the Roanoke River


December 4 — The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (abolishing slavery in the United States) is ratified by North Carolina.

Return to Timeline

Essential Questions, Lessons, and Activities:

  • Provide a map of the US in 1850 - The Big Book of the Civil War by Joanne Mattern Page 4-5
  • Provide a map of Wisconsin in 1850 showing industry, mining, lumber, farming Building Background and reviewing Prior Knowledge - Share pictures of Milwaukee and information about Milwaukee during that time period. (Chapter 5 in Making of Milwaukee video and book series by John Gurda)
  • Begin reading "If You Grew Up with Abraham Lincoln" by Ann McGovern. This will build background on a Union leader prior to the Civil War. After completing this story, we will read, "Who Was Harriet Tubman", written by Yona Zeldis McDonuough
  • Show pictures from the Milwaukee website (used picture of the Water Tower, and USM pictures)
  • Fun Milwaukee Site with Pictures Fun Milwaukee Website
University School Picture


Henry Box Brown


Start with Ironing out the facts trivia quiz
Read: The Big Book of the Civil War, by Joanne Mattern Pages 6-7
Q: What was happening (the conditions that led up to the Civil War) in our Country between 1850 and 1860? Hand out graphic organizer for taking notes on the causes/conditions that led up to the Civil War.

    • What were the roles of Men, Women, and Children of Wisconsin in the 1850's - just prior to the Civil War?
    • What were the roles of Men, Women, and Children of Wisconsin in the 1860's - during the Civil War?
    • What were the roles of Men, Women, and Children of Wisconsin in the late 1860's and early 1870's, after the Civil War?

Jigsaw Activity: Allow students to take a look at several Civil War books from the library. (Pre-select 7 or 8 and mark which pages they should read. Use the two text books because they both have important info). Students will read to find information about what men, women and children did during the Civil War. Bring them all back together after they have had time to look at 1-2 books and take some notes. Students share what they found. Essential info: many men went to war both in the North and South, leaving women and children behind to take over the jobs and chores at home. Some children (or young boys) fought or enlisted in the war. They first began as drummers or bugle boys, but soon began to find when other men got sick, injured or killed.

Civil War - Eye Witness Book - Page 8 Explaining the economy and rationalizing Slavery, the peculiar institution.
The Big Book of the Civil War by Joanne Mattern Page 8-9 Northern Life, Page 10-11, Southern Life
Introduction http://www.historycentral.com/CivilWar/AMERICA/Economics.html
In the years before the Civil War, the economic interests of Americans in the North and Northwest grew increasingly further from those of Americans in the South and Southwest. Although the Civil War itself was caused by a number of different factors, the divergent paths taken in the economic development of North and South contributed to the animosity between the regions, the development of the Confederacy and, ultimately, the victory of the Union.

Contrasting Economies
As a nation, the United States was still primarily agricultural in the years before, during and immediately after the Civil War. About three-quarters of the population lived in rural areas, including farms and small towns. Nevertheless, the Industrial Revolution that had hit England decades before gradually established itself in the "former colonies."
While factories were built all over the North and South, the vast majority of industrial manufacturing was taking place in the North. The South had almost 25% of the country's free population, but only 10% of the country's capital in 1860. The North had five times the number of factories as the South, and over ten times the number of factory workers. In addition, 90% of the nation's skilled workers were in the North.
The labor forces in the South and North were fundamentally different, as well. In the North, labor was expensive, and workers were mobile and active. The influx of immigrants from Europe and Asia provided competition in the labor market, however, keeping wages from growing very quickly. The Southern economy, however, was built on the labor of African American slaves, who were oppressed into providing cheap labor. Most Southern white families did not own slaves: only about 384,000 out of 1.6 million did. Of those who did own slaves, most (88%) owned fewer than 20 slaves, and were considered farmers rather than planters. Slaves were concentrated on the large plantations of about 10,000 big planters, on which 50-100 or more slaves worked. About 3,000 of these planters owned more than 100 slaves, and 14 of them owned over 1,000 slaves. Of the four million slaves working in the South in 1860, about one million worked in homes or in industry, construction, mining, lumbering or transportation. The remaining three million worked in agriculture, two million of whom worked in cotton.
Since Eli Whitney's 1793 invention of the cotton 'gin, the cotton industry became a lucrative field for Southern planters and farmers. Utilizing slave labor, cotton planters and farmers could cut costs as they produced cotton for sale to other regions and for export to England. In exchange, Southern farmers and planters purchased manufactured goods from the North, food items from the West and imported luxuries like European designer clothes and furniture from England. The growth of the Southern cotton industry served as an engine of growth for the entire nation's economy in the antebellum (pre-war) years.
The other critical economic issue that divided the North from the South was that of tariffs. Tariffs were taxes placed on imported goods, the money from which would go to the government. Throughout the antebellum period, whenever the federal government wanted to raise tariffs, Southern Congressmen generally opposed it and Northern Congressmen generally supported it. Southerners generally favored low tariffs because this kept the cost of imported goods low, which was important in the South's import-oriented economy. Southern planters and farmers were concerned that high tariffs might make their European trading partners, primarily the British, raise prices on manufactured goods imported by the South in order to maintain a profit on trade.
In the North, however, high tariffs were viewed favorably because such tariffs would make imported goods more expensive. That way, goods produced in the North would seem relatively cheap, and Americans would want to buy American goods instead of European items. Since tariffs would protect domestic industry from foreign competition, business interests and others influenced politicians to support high tariffs.
Americans in the West were divided on the issue. In the Southwest, where cotton was a primary commodity, people generally promoted low tariffs. In the Northwest and parts of Kentucky, where hemp (used for baling cotton) was a big crop, people supported high tariffs.

Economic Factors in Secession The Progress of Secession (Map)00000525.jpg
As the 1850s proceeded, the divide between the North and Northwest and the South and Southwest widened. The bitter debates over the slave status of newly-admitted states, which had been going on since at least the Missouri Compromise of 1820, were signs of the very real fear Southerners had of having their voice in Congress drowned out by "Yankee industrialists." Incidents such as the Southern protests against the "Tariff of Abominations" in the 1820s and the Nullification Crisis of the 1830s demonstrated how deep a rift the tariff controversy was creating between North and South.
In Congress, Southern Representatives and Senators were concerned that their interests would not be suitably addressed. As immigrants flocked to the Northern areas, swelling the ranks, Southerners were afraid the Northern states would increase their representation in the House of Representatives, blocking "Southern-friendly" legislation. The interests of Southern Americans who were African Americans, however, did not seem to concern a large number of Southern Congressmen. By the late 1850s, the fear of Northern domination in national economic policy, combined with the desire to maintain Southern institutions (including slavery), became a major influence on the people who eventually chose to secede from the Union.
What did the Confederacy hope to accomplish by seceding from the Union? The clearest goal was to defend and preserve the right of Southern Whites, including the right to own slaves. While the concept of owning another human being would obviously be a moral and criminal issue today; many slaveowners either ignored or tried to justify their way out of that dimension, focusing on the economic aspects of slavery. They held that the right to own people was a property right, just like owning land or buildings. Thus, when Northern politicians tried to ensure that new states admitted to the Union were "free-soil" (i.e., that no slavery was allowed), slaveowners felt that their right to settle in the West with their "property," including slaves, was being infringed. In addition, in the minds of secessionists, the threat of national abolition not only had the potential of reducing the wealth of many prominent Southerners, but also interfered with the "property" rights of Southern Whites. Thus, secession seemed to be the only way of preserving those rights.
In addition, some secessionists were interested in preserving the "Southern way of life." While the image of the large plantations and elegant Scarlet O'Hara-esque Southern belles sipping mint juleps was applicable to only a small minority of southern farms, the gentility and clearly-defined class system was something of a comfort, even for those Southerners who did not live in that world. In addition, some accepted the myth of the happy, subservient slave, who was not quite a human being and would benefit from the civilizing influence of Southern gentility. At the foundation of the "Southern way of life," however, was its oppressive economic system. In addition to reducing millions of Americans to the status of chattel, it made it very difficult for non-landed, unskilled Whites to succeeded in the face of labor competition from slaves.
Part of the "Southern way of life" was the European flavor and aspirations of the planter class. This cultural influence grew out of and was fed by the long-standing mutual economic relationship between England and the South. In order to ensure that the British market for Southern cotton remained open, Southern planters and others had to maintain relatively sizable importation of goods from Britain. At the same time, the European influence on Southern gentile society; in education, fashion, arts, and other fields; created a large demand for European imports. An imbalance in this relationship, such as would be caused by the abolition of slavery or increases in tariffs, would have cultural implications for the South.

Economics and the Union Victory
Despite the advantages the Confederacy had in well-trained officers and dedication to a cause, it was inevitable that the Union would win the war. The only hope for the Confederacy would have been that the Union would not resist secession, or that foreign nations would assist the Confederate cause. Once the Union decided to fight for unity and European nations chose to remain largely neutral, there was little long-term hope for the Confederacy. The Union's resources, although far from unlimited, were much greater than the Confederacy's resources, and would eventually last longer.
The Union had more than double the population of the Confederacy (including slaves), and almost four times the number of men of combat age. Even with only 50% of eligible men enlisted, relative to the Confederacy's 75%, the Union still had more than twice the number of people in the armed forces.
In addition to being more industrialized than the South (see "Contrasting Economies" Section), the North had better infrastructure. By the time of the Civil War, an extensive railroad system had been built, with new lines through the Northwest being added. In the South, disputes between states prevented the construction of interstate railroad systems. In all, the North had 20,000 miles of railroad compared to the South's 9,000 miles. In addition to possessing 70% of the total miles of railroad in the United States, the North had 96% of the United States' railroad equipment. The long-standing shipbuilding industry in New England ensured that the North would have a large merchant marine, as well as easy access to naval resources. Because of interstate conflicts, there were few continuous interstate railroad systems through the South. In addition, although there was a small Southern industry producing naval stores, there were few merchant ships or naval vessels in the South.
In the North, the US government was able to fund the war effort with the nation's treasury. The Union had strong banking institutions, and controlled at least 70% of the nation's wealth. To raise more funds, the US government raised taxes on goods and services and set high imports tariffs;. In addition, the Treasury issued paper money ("greenbacks") which was not backed by gold, but by government credit, thus reducing the amount of specie necessary for a given amount of money. The US government also raised money by selling bonds to individuals and banks.
The Southern economy, with its agricultural emphasis and relative lack of industrialization, did not have the money or capacity to support a war effort. The Confederacy had less than $1 million in specie in its treasury. Because of the Union blockade, Southern imports fell drastically, reducing the amount of import customs duties the Confederate government could collect. The blockade also prevented Southern farmers to export their goods; Southern cotton exports, for example, fell to 2% of their prewar volume. Thus, farmers and planters had little income with which to pay taxes. Because of issues of states rights, central Confederate taxation was too controversial to be effective, and the states were not contributing enough to the Confederate coffers to support its needs. The existence of slavery in the South and the unlikeness of Confederate victory made foreign governments generally reluctant to loan money to the Confederacy. The Confederacy tried to raise money by borrowing from its citizens, in exchange for Confederate bonds. The Confederate government issued over $150 million in bonds, none of which was ever repaid.
In order to raise money, the Confederacy printed more currency, about $1 billion, causing drastic inflation. By 1864, Confederate dollars were worth about $.05 in gold. Prices shot up, and many basic foods were out of the price range of most Southerners. In the spring of 1862, bread riots began in many Southern cities, the worst being the Richmond Bread Riot of April 2, 1862. More than a thousand women marched and rioted in downtown Richmond, shouting "bread or blood." Jefferson Davis himself ended the riot by appearing in person and threatening to order the militia to open fire.
By the end of the war, the South was economically devastated, having experienced extensive loss of human life and destruction of property. Poverty was widespread, and many resented the many Northerners and Southerners who took advantage of the needy in the South as the war came to an end. These conditions made it more difficult for the nation to heal the wounds which its union had suffered.

It is clear that economics was only one factor in the Civil War. Nevertheless, the economic tension between North and South contributed greatly to political tensions. In addition, economic realities were largely responsible for the Union's victory. While regional tensions and conflicts remained, the end of the Civil War signaled the beginning of the United States' development, economically and otherwise, as one nation.

Information from - http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilwarmenu/a/cause_civil_war.htm

Teaching About the Causes of the Civil War
United Streaming Causes of the Civil War

Brain Pop - Causes of the Civil War

Slavery Click Here

The Civil War lasted from 1861 to 1865 and led to over 618,000 casualties. Its causes can be traced back to tensions that formed early in the nation's history. Following are the top five causes that led to the "War Between the States."

1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South.
With Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. However, at the same time the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton meant the greater need for a large amount of cheap labor, i.e. slaves. Thus, the southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and therefore on slavery. On the other hand, the northern economy was based more on industry than agriculture. In fact, the northern industries were purchasing the raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This disparity between the two set up a major difference in economic attitudes. The South was based on the plantation system while the North was focused on city life. This change in the North meant that society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to work together. On the other hand, the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social order.

2. States versus federal rights.
Since the time of the Revolution, two camps emerged: those arguing for greater states rights and those arguing that the federal government needed to have more control. The first organized government in the US after the American Revolution was under the Articles of Confederation. The thirteen states formed a loose confederation with a very weak federal government. However, when problems arose, the weakness of this form of government caused the leaders of the time to come together at the Constitutional Convention and create, in secret, the US Constitution. Strong proponents of states rights like Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry were not present at this meeting. Many felt that the new constitution ignored the rights of states to continue to act independently. They felt that the states should still have the right to decide if they were willing to accept certain federal acts. This resulted in the idea of nullification, whereby the states would have the right to rule federal acts unconstitutional. The federal government denied states this right. However, proponents such as John C. Calhoun fought vehemently for nullification. When nullification would not work and states felt that they were no longer respected, they moved towards secession.

3. The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents.
As America began to expand, first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican War, the question of whether new states admitted to the union would be slave or free. The Missouri Compromise passed in 1820 made a rule that prohibited slavery in states from the former Louisiana Purchase the latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes north except in Missouri. During the Mexican War, conflict started about what would happen with the new territories that the US expected to gain upon victory. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in 1846 which would ban slavery in the new lands. However, this was shot down to much debate. The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay and others to deal with the balance between slave and free states, northern and southern interests. One of the provisions was the fugitive slave act that was discussed in number one above. Another issue that further increased tensions was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free or slave. The real issue occurred in Kansas where proslavery Missourians began to pour into the state to help force it to be slave. They were called "Border Ruffians." Problems came to a head in violence at Lawrence Kansas. The fighting that occurred caused it to be called "Bleeding Kansas." The fight even erupted on the floor of the senate when antislavery proponent Charles Sumner was beat over the head by South Carolina's Senator Preston Brooks.

4. Growth of the Abolition Movement.
Increasingly, the northerners became more polarized against slavery. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and slaveholders. This occurred especially after some major events including: the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Case, John Brown's Raid, and the passage of the fugitive slave act that held individuals responsible for harboring fugitive slaves even if they were located in non-slave states.

5. The election of Abraham Lincoln. .
Even though things were already coming to a head, when Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its "Declaration of the Causes of Secession." They believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favor of Northern interests. Before Lincoln was even president, seven states had seceded from the Union: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.

DAY 5:

Teaching About Abraham Lincoln and his impact on the Civil War

Brain Pop - Abraham Lincoln

Emancipation Proclamation Lesson from Bill of Rights Site Click Here.

What is the Emancipation Proclamation? Click Here.

The 13th Amendment in action Click Here

History Channel resources on Lincoln and the Civil War

The Speech that made Lincoln Famous
United Streaming - Southern Girl's perspective of the war

1. Review the roles of the people once the war started (students fill in their charts)

2. View Brain Pop
Abe Lincoln

3.Read the story, Lincoln Tells a Joke, How Laughter Saved the President

4. Read pages about Jefferson Davis. Discussion.

5. Continue reading "If You Grew Up with Abraham Lincoln" by Ann McGovern. This will build background on a Union leader prior to the Civil War.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.
How did the signing of the Fugitive Slave Act affect the people of the North, South, and particularly Wisconsin?
Emancipation Day!
Formal slavery was legal from 1619 until 1865 in the area that is now the United States. Many slaves were of African origin and many slave owners were of European descent, although some other groups also had slaves. By 1860, there were about four million slaves in the United States. On April 16, 1862, Abraham Lincoln, who was the US president at the time, signed the Compensated Emancipation Act, which freed more than 3000 slaves in the District of Columbia. However, slavery did not officially end in the rest of the United States until after the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 until 1865.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution formally ended slavery in the US. It was proposed on January 31, 1865, and ratified by 30 of the then 36 states in the same year. However, it was only ratified in Mississippi in 1995. Slavery and the racial divisions,upon which it was based, have had and continue to have huge implications for individuals and American society as a whole.
Emancipation Day in Washington DC marks the anniversary of the signing of the Compensated Emancipation Act. On January 4, 2005, legislation was signed to make Emancipation Day an official public holiday in the District of Columbia. Elsewhere in the United States, the emancipation of slaves is celebrated in Florida (May 20), Puerto Rico (March 22) and Texas (June 19). There are also similar events in many countries in the Caribbean, including Anguilla, Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Many of these events occur during the first week of August as slavery was abolished in the British Empire on August 1, 1834.
Public life
April 16 is a legal holiday in Washington DC. Local government offices are closed and many public services do not operate. However, many stores and businesses are open and there are no changes to public transit services. In some years, Emancipation Day may be the reason to extend the deadline for filing an income tax return (Tax Day). In 2007, the observance Emancipation Day in Washington DC had the effect of nationally extending the 2006 income tax filing deadline from April 16 to April 17. This 2007 date change was not discovered until after many forms went to print.
In all other areas of the United States, April 16 is a normal day and public life is not affected.
What do people do?
A wide range of events are arranged in Washington DC to mark Emancipation Day. These are spread throughout the month of April and include exhibitions, public discussions, presentations of historic documents, the laying of wreaths, concerts and poetry readings. The events aim to educate a broad spectrum of people about the history of the municipality of the District of Columbia in general and slavery in particular. Attention isalso paid to the African origin of many slaves and racial issues in modern American society.

United Streaming - Video, Civil War

*Student Project (Should take approximately one class period)
Important People/Issues during the Civil War Time Period - Narrative Readings
Students work in small groups to read the information, answer the questions, discuss the material and present it to the class.

Civil War Facts


Many elements of Civil War scholarship are still hotly debated. The facts on this page are based on the soundest information available.

Q. When was the Civil War fought?

The war began when Confederate warships bombarded Union soldiers at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861. The war ended in Spring, 1865. Robert E. Lee surrendered the last major Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. The last battle was fought at Palmito Ranch, Texas, on May 13, 1865. Click here for a Civil War timeline.
Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter

The bombardment of Fort Sumter (Library of Congress)

Q. Where was the Civil War fought?

The Civil War was fought in thousands of different places, from southern Pennsylvania to Texas; from New Mexico to the Florida coast. The majority of the fighting took place in the states of Virginia and Tennessee. The Civil War was also contested on the Atlantic Ocean as far off as the coast of France, the Gulf of Mexico, and the brown water of the Mississippi River and its tributaries.
Battles of the Civil War | Civil War Navies

Q. How many soldiers fought in the Civil War?

At the beginning of the war the Northern states had a combined population of 22 million people. The Southern states had a combined population of about 9 million. This disparity was reflected in the size of the armies in the field. The Union forces outnumbered the Confederates roughly two to one.
The Opposing Armies
The Opposing Armies

Q. How many soldiers died in the Civil War?

Approximately 620,000 soldiers died from combat, accident, starvation, and disease during the Civil War. This number comes from an 1889 study of the war performed by William F. Fox and Thomas Leonard Livermore. Both men fought for the Union. Their estimate is derived from an exhaustive study of the combat and casualty records generated by the armies over five years of fighting. A recent study puts the number of dead as high as 850,000.

Q. How many soldiers died in the Civil War as compared to other American wars?

Roughly 1,264,000 American soldiers have died in the nation's wars--620,000 in the Civil War and 644,000 in all other conflicts. It was only as recently as the Vietnam War that the amount of American deaths in foreign wars eclipsed the number who died in the Civil War.
War Deaths
War Deaths

Q. Who won the Civil War?

The Northern armies were victorious, and the rebellious states returned to the Union.

Q. Who ran in the election of 1860?

The election of 1860 was one of the most unusual in American history. In a four-way race brought on by a split in the Democratic Party, Abraham Lincoln's name did not even appear on the ballot in most Southern states. In theelectoral college, Lincoln solidly carried the free states of the Northeast and Northwest. Breckenridge won the slaveholding states, with the exception of Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky in the Upper South, which went to Bell. Douglas, though he made a solid showing in the popular vote, only took electoral votes from Missouri and New Jersey.

first inaugural
first inaugural

Abraham Lincoln delivers his first inaugural address on March 4, 1861. (Library of Congress)

Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, Republican Party: 39.8%

Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, Northern Democratic Party: 29.5%

John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky, Southern Democratic Party: 18.1%

John Bell of Tennessee, Constitutional Union Party: 12.6%

Q. When did the Southern states secede from the Union?

  1. South Carolina - December 20, 1860
  2. Mississippi - January 9, 1861
  3. Florida - January 10, 1861
  4. Alabama - January 11, 1861
  5. Georgia - January 19, 1861
  6. Louisiana - January 26, 1861
  7. Texas - February 1, 1861
  8. Virginia - April 17, 1861
  9. Arkansas - May 6, 1861
  10. North Carolina - May 20, 1861
  11. Tennessee - June 8, 1861

Q. Was secession legal?

No, although it was not ruled illegal until after the war. This was a complex question at the time, with able legal minds to be found arguing both sides, but the United States Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868), determined that secession was unconstitutional. Chief Justice Salmon Chase wrote in his majority opinion that, "The ordinance of secession...and all the acts of legislature intended to give effect to that ordinance, were absolutely null. They were utterly without operation in law."

Q. What caused the Civil War?

While many still debate the ultimate causes of the Civil War, Pulitzer Prize-winning author James McPherson writes that, "The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave states over the power of the national government to prohibit slavery in the territories that had not yet become states. When Abraham Lincoln won election in 1860 as the first Republican president on a platform pledging to keep slavery out of the territories, seven slave states in the deep South seceded and formed a new nation, the Confederate States of America. The incoming Lincoln administration and most of the Northern people refused to recognize the legitimacy of secession. They feared that it would discredit democracy and create a fatal precedent that would eventually fragment the no-longer United States into several small, squabbling countries."
Trigger Events of the Civil War
Bloodiest Battles
Bloodiest Battles

Q. What were the bloodiest battles of the Civil War?
  1. Gettysburg--51,000 casualties
  2. Chickamauga--34,624 casualties
  3. Spotsylvania--30,000 casualties
  4. The Wilderness--29,800 casualties
  5. Chancellorsville--24,000 casualties
  6. Shiloh--23,746 casualties
  7. Stones River--23,515 casualties
  8. Antietam--22,717 casualties
  9. Second Manassas--22,180 casualties
  10. Vicksburg--19,233 casualties

See our Civil War Infographic
The Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg

Historian Garry Adelman describes the events that took place during the Battle of Gettysburg from July 1-July 3, 1863. This video is part of the Civil War Trust's In4 video series, which presents short videos on basic Civil War topics.
Watch the Video »

Q. What is a casualty?
Too often, people take 'casualty' and 'fatality' to be interchangeable terms. In fact, a casualty is "a military person lost through death, wounds, injury, sickness, internment, or capture or through being missing in action." Essentially, a casualty is any soldier who goes into a fight and does not return fit to take part in the next battle. Many soldiers, especially in the Confederate ranks, became casualties several times: some soldiers were captured multiple times; some were wounded in non-consecutive engagements.

Q. What caused casualties during a battle?

Casualty Sources
Casualty Sources

Q. What happened to the dead?

Typically, soldiers were buried where they fell on the battlefield. Others were buried near the hospitals where they died. At most battlefields the dead were exhumed and moved to National or Confederate cemeteries, but because there were so many bodies, and because of the time and effort it took to disinter them, there are undoubtedly thousands if not tens of thousands of Civil War soldiers in unknown battlefield graves.

Historian Pete Carmichael describes the process of finding, burying, and reburying the dead after battles. He also discusses the significance of having a "decent burial," and efforts to lay soldiers to rest in military cemeteries in the years after the war. This video is part of the Civil War Trust's In4 video series, which presents short videos on basic Civil War topics.
Watch the Video »

Q. What happened to prisoners?

More than 400,000 soldiers were captured over the course of the Civil War. In the first years of the conflict, equal numbers of captured troops were regularly exchanged for one another, helping to keep the total number of prisoners manageable for both sides. Over the course of the war, however, that practice faded from use. By the end of the war, the plight of prisoners of war on both sides had become bleak indeed. Thousands of Southerners died in the freezing camp at Elmira, New York, and the camp at Andersonville, Georgia, which held Union prisoners, has become one of the most infamous in the history of war. Nearly as many men died in captivity during the Civil War as died fighting in Vietnam.

Q. How advanced was medicine during the Civil War?

Two thirds of those killed in the Civil War died of disease. Germ theory had not been widely accepted in the medical world at the time of the Civil War and modern antiseptics, which could have greatly reduced the spread of bacteria and the outbreak of disease, did not exist. As George Worthington Adams famously wrote, “The Civil War was fought in the very last years of the medical middle ages.” Chloroform, ether and whiskey were the main anesthetics. Still, many survived their wounds and had only the dedicated doctors and nurses and their selfless efforts to thank. Medicine is an ever-evolving science. Unfortunately for those who fought in the Civil War, the technology of warfare was miles ahead of the technology of health care.
field hospital
field hospital

A Union field hospital at Savage Station, Virginia in 1862. (Library of Congress)

Q. How was the army organized?
Military Organization
Military Organization
The largest military unit is the army, which is sub-divided into smaller commands. Although organization varied between the armies, the largest sub-section of a given army was the corps, which was typically divided into two or more divisions, each composed of two or more brigades, which were each made up of two or more regiments, with each regiment containing roughly ten companies of ideally 100 men (but more typically near 30). Companies themselves were subdivided into platoons and squads before the army finally reached the level of the individual soldier. Armies were sometimes grouped together in "departments" that were defined by geography and operational objective.

Q. How much were soldiers paid?

A white Union private made thirteen dollars a month; his black counterpart made seven dollars until Congress rectified the discrepancy in 1864. A Confederate private ostensibly made eleven dollars a month, but often went long stretches with no pay at all.

Q. What role did African-Americans play in the war effort?

With the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862, African-Americans - both free and runaway slaves - came forward to volunteer for the Union cause in substantial numbers. Beginning in October, approximately 180,000 African-Americans, comprising 163 units, served in the U.S. Army, and 18,000 in the Navy. That month, the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers repulsed a Confederate attack at Island Mound, Missouri. Men of the U.S.C.T.(United States Colored Troops) units went on to distinguish themselves on battlefields east and west - at Port Hudson, Louisiana; Honey Springs, Oklahoma; Fort Wagner, South Carolina; New Market Heights, Virginia. African Americans constituted 10% of the entire Union Army by the end of the war, and nearly 40,000 died over the course of the war.
Company E
Company E

Company E of the 4th US Colored Infantry at Fort Lincoln (Library of Congress)

Q. What did soldiers do in their free time?

When they were not drilling, which made up a considerable portion of their time in camp, soldiers passed the timewriting letters, playing games like checkers, dominoes and poker, drinking, smoking, whittling, making music and praying. One soldier summed it up when he wrote to his wife, "Soldiering is 99% boredom and 1% sheer terror."
Civil War Winter Encampments

Q. What did soldiers eat?

A Union soldier poses in front of a "fresh" shipment of hardtack. (Library of Congress)

Civil War soldiers' fare varied substantially from army to army and throughout the course of the war for both sides. For the most part, neither side ate particularly well. Hardtack and coffee were the staples, in addition to salt pork, corn meal and whatever fruits, vegetables and berries could be collected on the march. Many Confederate soldiers were in a state of near-starvation by the war's end.

Q. What was the average soldier's age?

The average Union soldier was 25.8 years old; there is no definite information on the average age of Confederate soldiers, but by the end of the war old men and young boys, who otherwise would have stayed home, were being pressed into service. The average soldier on both sides was a white, native-born, protestant farmer.

Q. Did anybody win the Medal of Honor in the Civil War?

Yes. There were 1522 Medals of Honor issued to Northern troops, black and white, over the course of the war. The Confederate Army did not have combat medals. Robert E. Lee explained that the highest honor possible was to be "mentioned in dispatches," in other words, to be included in an officer's report for particularly gallant conduct. John Singleton Mosby, the "Grey Ghost," was mentioned in dispatches more than any other Confederate soldier.

Q. Were there naval battles in the Civil War?

Yes, the North and South waged war on the Atlantic Ocean, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the rivers of the mainland. Cotton trade with Europe was vital to the Southern war effort, which led Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scott to order a strangling blockade known as the "Anaconda Plan." While Southern blockade runners tested this screen, engineers were inventing the first ironclad warships the world had ever seen. On the rivers, gunboats, shore batteries, and island fortresses entered the battle as both sides fought for control of inland arteries that were essential to the fast transport of men and material. The Civil War at sea, mostly notably with the development of the ironclads, changed the trajectory of naval warfare around the globe.
Civil War Navies
monitor and merrimack
monitor and merrimack

The duel of the ironclads U.S.S. Monitor and the C.S.S. Virginia drew international attention. (Library of Congress)

Q. What was the range of Civil War artillery?

Smoothbore cannons, such as the 12-pounder Napoleon, had a range of around three-quarters of a mile; rifled cannons, such as the 10-pounder Parrott, had a range of one and a half miles, or about double that of a smoothbore. Some larger cannons and imported pieces could fire even farther.

Q. How did the draft work?

The Confederacy instituted the first draft in American history in April of 1862. It was clear that the South, with a total population of 9 million (including 4 million slaves), would have to muster all of its manpower to repel the North, which had an 1860 population of around 22 million. The Confederate draft exempted those who owned twenty slaves or more, however, arousing resentment amongst the poor whites who constituted the vast majority of the army. Abraham Lincoln instituted a draft on the Northern states a year later, likewise calling on all able-bodied 18-35 year old men to serve. There were exemptions in the North, too, if those drafted could pay a significant fee or provide a substitute.

Q. Why are there alternate names for Civil War battles?

Union commanders typically named battles after the nearest river or creek. Confederates typically named battles after the nearest city or town. But these rules did not always apply; they were highly dependent on the names employed by the victors, the public and the media.

This view shows Union ironclads firing heavy ordnance near Charleston Harbor. (Library of Congress)

Q. Are there photographs of Civil War battles?

Photography was a new art form when the Civil War broke out. The cameras and chemicals available at the time were too unwieldy and unstable to accommodate the chaos of a battlefield. Nevertheless, a few photographs of Civil War combat do exist, including images of artillery bombardments, gunboat broadsides, and battle smoke at Nashville and Fredericksburg. Thousands of other Civil War photographs can be found online at the Library of Congress.

Q. Were there black Confederate soldiers?

Slaves and free blacks were present in the Confederate lines as handservants and manual laborers. On March 14, 1865 the Confederate military issued General Orders No. 14, which provided for the raising of black combat regiments, but there is no official military documentation that indicates these orders were carried out or that any black soldiers were ever properly enlisted in the Confederate army. There are a few photographs of blacks in Confederate uniforms, but these appear to be hoaxes.

Q. What are some of the best Civil War books?

Battle Cry of Freedom by James McPherson -- Considered by many to be the finest single-volume history of the Civil War era.
A Stillness at Appomattox by Bruce Catton -- The third and final volume of Catton's critically-acclaimed Civil War trilogy; winner of the Pulitzer Prize.
The Civil War: A Narrative by Shelby Foote -- Three volumes, three thousand pages and more than a million words.
The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara -- The best Civil War novel of the 20th century and the inspiration behind Ken Burns' epic documentary.
Company Aytch by Sam Watkins -- An illuminating Confederate memoir by a Tennessean who fought practically everywhere in the Western theater
The Civil War Trust's comprehensive bookstore can be found here.

Q. How much battlefield land has the Civil War Trust saved?

More than 34,000 acres and counting!

Q. How can I get involved in Civil War battlefield preservation?

**Life in the North vs. Life in the South PRE-CIVIL WAR**
DAY 6:

Directions for jig-saw activity.

Camp Randall Lesson Plans/Primary and Secondary Source Documents

Q: What role did Camp Randall play in Civil War?
Q: How did Wisconsin get ready for the war?

The Midwest's Role in the Civil War

The Civil War Museum is dedicated to telling the personal stories and contributions of the men and women of the Upper Middle West - specifically, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, and Minnesota.
Kenosha, Wisconsin is in the center of a region that saw no combat, but provided many troops, leaders, industry and supplies for the cause. This region's heart was in the heart of the cause, even if it was only near the edge of battle.

Number Who Served
in Civil War
Percent of That State's
Population in 1860

In Today's Terms:

Using a 2006 population estimate for Wisconsin of 5,609,705, a 12% involvement would equal 673,164 individuals serving in the war. For Illinois, today's number would be 1.9 million.

Teaching Information -
1. Ask the question, "Who has ever been to Camp Randall?" "What do you know about it?"
2. Teacher reads background information on Camp Randall and Students take notes
3. Teacher Reads page 129 in Wisconsin, Our State, Our Story, and students follow along making connections with prior knowledge.
4. Show old pictures of Camp Randall located on the wiki
5. Read letters from Wisconsin soldier named Chauncey.
6. Read Old Abe.


On September 26, 1864, “Old Abe”, the bald eagle mascot of the 8th Wisconsin, officially returned to the State of Wisconsin during the Civil War. To commemorate the 150th anniversary of this presentation of Old Abe to the public care of the people of Wisconsin, the Wisconsin Veterans Museum is happy to welcome back our friends from the National Eagle Center in Wabash, Minnesota.

From 11:30am-1:30pm, a live bald eagle and handler will be in the courtyard on State Street next to the Wisconsin Veterans Museum to meet and take pictures with. Get up close and learn from the experts about bald eagles and what it takes to care for them. A short educational talk will be conducted every 30 minutes with time for pictures afterward. The rain location is the lobby of the Wisconsin Veterans Museum.

6th_regiment_Wisconsin_flag.gif 1st Wisconsin Flag.png

6th Wisconsin National Flag

The 6th Wisconsin Volunteers was recruited from counties in the southern third of the state in the spring of 1861, and after training at Camp Randall in Madison was mustered into service in July, 1861. Assigned to the East, it was, in October of that year, brigaded with two other Wisconsin regiments, the 2nd and 7th, and the 19th Indiana to form the only all-Western brigade in the Army of the Potomac. The history of the 6th is thus entwined with that of the brigade. Under its second commander, John Gibbon, a regular army artillery officer and a North Carolinian, the brigade was forged from a collection of rough-edged farmers, pinery boys and common workers into a fine-edged fighting force. With his leadership, the final components of the brigade's distinctive uniform -- nine-button regular army wool frock and sky blue trousers, set off, at least initially, with white leggings and the tall Hardee black hat with plume and brass trimmings -- was complete. The Brigade's first test in battle occurred in the prelude to Second Bull Run when the four regiments confronted a superior force of Stonewall Jackson's men on the farm fields of a family named Brawner. In the late afternoon of August 28, 1862, the Western men traded deadly blows with the Rebel veterans. Only darkness brought an end to the bloody confrontation. Quickly following was the Battle of Second Bull Run. And when Robert E. Lee pointed his army into Maryland in September, the Big Hat Brigade, as it was now being called, marched with the First Corps. At Cumberland Gap in South Mountain, September 14, 1862, the unit earned its vaunted name, when Army Commander George B. McClellan observed the men of Wisconsin and Indiana, under fire from Rebel defenders, relentlessly pushing forward up the National Road. He is said to have remarked, "They stand like iron." The Big Hat became the Iron Brigade. Just three days later, the Badgers and Hoosiers fought in the bloodiest day of the war, Antietam, sustaining awesome losses during the opening phase of the battle. To compensate for the ghastly gaps in it ranks; the Western men were reinforced the month following Antietam by the addition of a new regiment, the 24th Michigan. The latter unit earned its membership into the brigade and its Black Hats with valor at Fredericksburg, won at awful human cost. The 6th Wisconsin's finest hour of the war occurred on the first day at Gettysburg. While its sister regiments battled the Rebel surge along Willoughby Run and in McPherson's Woods west of town, the Calico Wisconsin boys were ordered to the right where the enemy relentlessly swept aside another Union brigade. Charging across a stubble field and onto the Chambersburg Pike, the 6th Wisconsin briefly reset its line, before storming the defenders in an unfinished railroad cut. Several hundred prisoners from two gray regiments were taken along with the banner of the 2nd Mississippi. Sgt. Francis A. Wallar of Company I won the Medal of Honor for the flag capture. The distinctive all-Western character of the Iron Brigade was erased with the infusion of Eastern regiments into its ranks later in 1863. However, the 6th Wisconsin subsequently marched every mile and fought in every major battle until the end of the war. Onto the stripes of its battle flag after Gettysburg were painted Mine Run, Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Laurel Hill, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, 1st Hatcher's Run and 2nd Hatcher's Run (Gravelly Run and Five Forks). The regiment's honors were gained at great cost for its name stands among the foremost units in the number of men killed in battle or died of wounds during the entire war, according to William Fox's study, Regimental Losses of the Civil War. With the 7th Wisconsin, the 6th was present for duty at Appomattox Court House in April, 1865.



ON-GOING Assessment Tools -

DAY 7:

Teaching About the Roles of the People we don't usually hear about.
  • The roles of formal leaders vs. informal leaders - with leadership, comes responsibility.
  • The power of a group.

Q. What were the roles of Women, African Americans and Native Americans in the Civil War -

Native Americans and the Civil War
Native American Soldiers in the Civil War.JPG

The Role of Women in the Civil War

Women who fought in the Civil War - Smithsonian

North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial

"Where Home Used to Be": The Civil War's Impact on Women at Home

By Donna E. Kelly

During the Civil War Janie Smith lived in Harnett County, located north of Fayetteville. She witnessed the devastation of the war firsthand, as the Battle of Averasboro took place near her home.
Like many other women, Janie suffered external and internal upheavals. Her house was spared but she suffered shortages of food and clothing. Furthermore her "home" would never be the same, since it was used as an infirmary where she viewed the horrors of battle, including amputations. In April of 1865 she wrote "The painful impression has seared my very heart. I can never forget it. . . . Every southern breeze is loaded with a terrible scent from the battlefield, which renders my home very disagreeable at times." The memories haunted her, hence the title of her letter: "Where home used to be." This phrase symbolized the disruption of home life, especially for women.
Janie Smith
Janie Smith

Janie Smith
Like Janie Smith, hundreds of women wrote letters about their trials and tribulations. The majority were written to loved ones expressing longing and reporting on events back home. Martha Futch of New Hanover County wrote to her husband John in February of 1863 "Dear husban I shal come to see you if you aint back by April, fore I want to see you veary bad fore I have aplenty of nuas to tell you." Their words changed, however, as the war progressed and as feelings of despair increased.
At the beginning of the war women were expected to play the role of the Spartan, exhibiting self-sacrifice and patient suffering, just as their Revolutionary foremothers had done. It was the patriotic duty for men to enlist and women to support them. The feeling of preserving family honor ran rampant. These women were expected to endure, and if they complained, they felt guilty.
Women outwardly pretended that everything was all right while inwardly they were apprehensive. Many recorded this feeling in diaries and letters, many of which have been well-documented, such as Mary Chesnutt and Catherine Edmondston. I have chosen to use letters as my primary source, selecting those directly relating to the husband-wife relationship.
The advent of war led to domestic confusion. There were unconventional courtships and hasty marriages. Few eligible men were available so there were brief engagements and age disparities. Some marriages were postponed because of the war. Alfred M. Scales of Rockingham County, who would later serve as governor, wrote letters to "Cousin Kate" beginning in late 1861. Although it was implied that there was a great difference between their ages--how much we do not know--she agreed to marry him. In a letter dated November 15, 1862, he wrote "I am writing to my own Dear Kate. She has agreed to give up home & mother and kindred & pledged herself to be mine in weal or woe." They were to be married in late January but he could not get away. According to a letter dated February 9, 1863, he said "How cruel the fate that separates us! . . . I hope that I shall yet . . . see & call you my own my beloved wife." No marriage record survives, but letters reveal that they were married by March.
Many times the letters articulated emotions that had been left unsaid. John Futch wrote to his wife Martha in November of 1861, "No man can tell how well he loves a woman until he is con fine wear he has but few liberties." Letters like this were filled with sentimentality, longing, and mutual worship--all characteristic of the Victorian era. In 1862 he wrote "It makes me feel quite solemn when I think how far I am seperated from you, my dear one." Martha, longing to see him wrote on March 29, 1863:
  • If you wanted to come home as bad as I do want you to come you would . . . tri to git home if you can and dear husban if you wanted to see me as bad as I do want to see you, you would be wiling fore me to come and see you fore I would give the world to see you if it was in my puseshen . . . I dont fore git you day nor nite, I dreme of you every nite.
Isaac Lefevers of Catawba County wrote June 12, 1862, to his wife Catharine "Send me a lock of your purty black hair. Put it in a plat sow it will gow own my vesk."
Letters were also written by husbands instructing their wives on how to take care of things back home. They felt that the women could not manage the farm without them or were not capable of doing so on their own. Isaac Lefevers wrote to his wife in April of 1862, "I want you to have as mutch plowing done as you can but not plant now till I come home or rite again." He also wrote "I don't want you to do it [plowing] yourself for it is too hard for you to do it."
There was a misconception that the men would only be gone a year so they would be back in time to harvest. Obviously, this was not the case. Women had to manage on their own and therefore exhibited a growing assertiveness. The common expectations about feminine frailty and dependence went out the window, so to speak, as they assumed new roles.
Women suffered numerous threats from outside their home. They were faced with raiding by Confederates as well as by Federals. They often endured physical danger, especially the threat of rape.
Inadequate transportation led to shortages of food, clothing, and medicine. The lack of salt led many women to gather up the dirt from curing barns in order to salvage what they could. These scarcities led to high costs and inflation.
Many women wrote to Gov. Zebulon B. Vance for help, which resulted in some public assistance. Others wrote seeking special favors or commissions for their husbands. Prisoners' wives petitioned to receive their husbands' pay. One group of ladies in Warren County wrote:
  • Mr. Gov. Vance, if you please to tell me what we poore . . . soldiers wifes is to do that we are hear sufering for the want of somthing to eat. . . . I never have suferd so much as I have for the last three or four months, for I have to go some times week with nothing but bread to eat and I think that is to hard to take a poor man from his wife and children to leave hear to perish to death . . . my husband has ben in the army nearly two year and they dont let him come home to see me, much less provide any way for me to live. If you dont provide some way for us to live we will be compell to take our little children and to our husband or they must come home to us. If you plese [write] to me as soon as you get this and let me no what we are to [do].
Other women took matters into their own hands. In 1863 nearly seventy-five women seized flour and other food from Salisbury speculators. Daniel Brown recorded the incident in his April 5th letter to his wife:
  • I heard last week in Salsbury N.C. thare was a portion of soldiers wives armed themselves and went to the flower speculators and demanded flower. He gave them twenty three lbs then they went to the man that had salt. He gave them one sack and they went to the man that had molases and he gave them all he had. I glory in thir spunck. I wish as many wives as is starving good luck in so doing.
Not only were extraordinary measures taken to preserve the family, ordinary problems like fidelity and child rearing, taken for granted before the war, became more complicated. Wives worried about the morals of their husbands, yet were hesitant to "oblige" during furloughs for fear of having another mouth to feed nine months later! They were virtually single parents as it was, since their husbands were many miles away.
Despite their distance, men advised their wives on raising children. Isaac Lefevers wrote:
  • I want you to give the children all howdy for me and tell them to be purty till Paw comes home . . . I want you to try and keep the children under as mutch as you can and tell them to bee good childrean till I come home and I want you to not lette Alles for get what she lernt last winter.
Daniel Brown wrote to his sons in 1863 "You be smart my little boyes till you Pap goes back home." He told his wife "Dear Wife I want you to make them mind you the best you can but not whip them." Apparently only the father was to administer discipline.
In addition to being without their spouse for emotional support, there was a breakdown in the community institutions like churches and schools which usually provided such outlets. All women had to rely on was their faith, and even that wore thin as the war dragged on.
As is obvious, the letters themselves created emotional roller coasters for these women. Isaac Lefevers missed his wife's cooking and longed to see the baby walk. Daniel Brown wrote May 22, 1863, "You must do the best you can for I cant do nothing for you nor my little children."
Many letters of complaint and suffering led husbands to desert, as did news of the rioting mentioned earlier. When faced with either having disabled husbands or no husband at all, these wives urged their men to come home to avoid either circumstance. Their letters also exhibited a growing pessimism which hurt morale. As one scholar (Gordon McKinney) wrote "women played a central role in the decline of the southern willingness to sacrifice for the cause." Ironically, Martha Futch's own letters contributed, though indirectly, to her husband's death. He deserted, was court-martialed, and shot for desertion in the fall of 1863.
Mail, then, often was a mixed blessing. The wives loved to hear from their husbands, but they also dreaded to get bad news, so it increased anxiety. Furthermore, communication channels led to conflicting accounts of battles and casualties. Not knowing made it harder to accept death, mourn, and to start over. They were prevented from going through the normal stages of grief. Only a few short days after Martha Brown had received a letter from her beloved Daniel, another letter came informing her of her husband's death on June 5, 1863, from typhoid fever.
To help heal their grief, many women searched for their husbands' remains in order to ensure a proper burial. These pilgrimages made it easier to begin the process of living again. Martha Brown, after learning of her husband's death, wrote to the hospital where he died to find out more details about his death. J. D. Bachelor, the man who was with him when he died, wrote to her explaining how he had "expressed a great dissatisfaction at being absent from his home and family." He also told her how her husband "was put away." He was in a marked grave but it would cost $200 to transport the body. Whether she ever recovered his body is not evidenced in the records.
The poignancy of these letters reveals the difficulty in expecting supposedly weak, sensitive women to become strong all of a sudden and automatically in this crisis. George Rable in his book, Civil Wars: Women in the Crisis of Southern Nationalism put it very well when he wrote:
  • Too many men died, too many families mourned. Women struggled to maintain a semblance of stability by preserving as much of traditional family life as possible. But pain and death, separation, and suffering blunted their efforts. Wives . . . had to weigh once again their personal losses against their love for a struggling nation, and slowly the scales began to tilt away from sacrifice and toward self-preservation. Perhaps family honor had survived as women were forced to take on the task of safeguarding their families, but this must have been small comfort for those who realized that the war had destroyed so many of the sinews of home life.
The war in effect wreaked havoc on "where home used to be."
=Feature Article=
external image women.jpg

NC Department of Cultural Resources
NC Department of Cultural Resources

More of Women in the Civil War

Specific Women in the Civil War

Facts About Women in the Civil War

Voices of Children in the Civil War

Teaching the Lesson -
1. Life as a soldier - students take notes while teacher reads article called Life As A Soldier
Civil War Soldier Information
Clothing, Uniforms, Accoutrements (Accessories), Reenactors, Set Dressing

2. Women in the Civil War - Students take notes while looking at websites and listening to facts about women in the war. Students learn that women had many roles during the war. They were nurses, spies, and soldiers. 600 women served as soldiers even though they weren't enlisted. They made bandages for injured soldiers. They knit and repaired socks for soldiers. Women worked in factories making uniforms, ammunition, and other supplies. Women started societies to help support soldiers (Sick Soldier's Relief Society, Soldier's Aid Society)
Cordelia Harvey

3. Native American's in the Civil War - First Battle that Native Americans fought in was in July of 1863.

4. African American's in the Civil War - Served as soldiers after January 1, 1863 (Emancipation Proclamation)

5. Teacher Read-Aloud, Hold the Flag High

6. View Frederick Douglass Brain Pop.
Brain Pop - Frederick Douglass

WHO AM I Smithsonian Interactive Activity

Primary Source Images Website - Slavery/UGRR Click Here
PBS People and Places UGRR Click Here.
Levi Coffin's UGRR stop Click Here
Fugitives Arriving at Indiana Farm Click Here.
Smithsonian - Document Detective Click Here
National Geographic - The Underground Railroad click here
Ducksters - The Underground Railroad and The American Civil War Click Here

DAY 8:
Teaching About the Underground Railroad -
1. Access prior student prior knowledge about the UGRR by eliciting student answers to the question, "What do you already know about the UGRR?"
2. Watch Brain Pop about the UGRR.
Define the UGRR: a network of escape routes for slaves
Anti-Slavery Abolitionist Movement: Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman Abolitionist Slide Show
Quakers: religious group against slavery because of their belief system, but sometimes were against working on the UGRR because it meant breaking the law.
Conductor: Helpers on the UGRR
Station or SafeHouse: A relatively safe stop along the UGRR
During the years prior to the Civil War, tens of thousands of African-American slaves won their freedom by heading north along the Underground Railroad. In this BrainPOP movie, Tim and Moby will tell you all about the treacherous journey they took. You’ll learn the origin of the term “underground railroad” (no, it didn’t really run underground), and find out why people called abolitionists risked jail time to help slaves escape. You’ll learn about Harriet Tubman, the most famous “conductor” in the history of the railroad, and how something called the Fugitive Slave Law inflamed public opinion against slavery. It’s a fascinating topic, so click on this movie and learn all about it!
Brain Pop - Underground Railroad

3. Read about the Common Myths associated with the UGRR on the Scholastic Link below.

Scholastic Underground Railroad Link

4. Children spend 5 minutes responding to the following scenario: "It is 1854 and you are an abolitionist. An enslaved person comes to your door. What do you do?"

5. Children spend 5 minutes responding to the following scenario: "It is 1854 and you are a plantation owner. You just realized that one of your slaves escaped. What would you do?"

Who Am I? Smithsonian Activity Click Here.

Discovery Ed video - Great for review of Unit Click Here.

Venture Smith - A 7 year old Slave video clip (15 minutes)
United Streaming - Underground Railroad

Scholastic Slavery Activity and Links

Runaway Slave Writing Journal Page

Brain Pop - Slavery

The History of Slavery Slide Show

Walter - Slave Life on a Plantation

The Joshua Glover Story from WUWM Joshua Glover Story

DAY 9:
Teaching About Famous People Associated with the Underground Railroad
1. Have a few students share the responses to the two scenarios that were given in the last class period.

2. Talk about some famous people associated with the UGRR.

3. Harriet Tubman (scholastic website) Harriet Tubman Web Hunt Recording Sheet (to be used with the Scholastic LInk)
Harriet Tubman biographyClick here.

3. Read- Moses (book about Harriet Tubman)
Images of Harriet Tubman - Google
Complete the Character Analysis of Harriet Tubman

4. Go to the Scholastic Underground Link and show them the map that is located on the Freedom page http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/map.htm

5. Show them the website and how to navigate through it. Tell them to stop and listen to the audio and watch the videos if there are any on the page.

6. Students will explore the Scholastic UGRR site with a partner
Scholastic Underground Railroad Link
A short Biography about Harriet Tubman

Day 10:
Read Moses
The focus is to analyze Harriet Tubman's character and how her behavior exhibits the 5 tenets of the Common

5 minute video clip - interview with Harriet Tubman's neice

Students complete HT graphic organizer. Harriet Tubman Glogster

Students will continue to view the UGRR Scholastic website

After viewing the entire website, each student will ask each other this question and record it on the netbook using moviemaker.

After viewing the website, what is something that you learned that you would like to have more conversation about?

Currency, Weapons, and Flags of the Civil War -
Information taken from 1995 Historical Documents Co. ISBN - 798280019224 and ISBN - 798280019200

History of the Confederate Currency

  • After South Carolina seceeded from the Union in 1860, ten other states soon followed: these "rebel" states formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederate government issued a small amount of money from the first capital in Montgomery, Alabama in April 1861.
  • By May 1861, with the Confederate capital permanently established in Richmond, Virginia, the Confederacy started to issue large quantities of money. By the end of 1864, these issues totaled nearly two billion dollars. In addition to this currency, individual Southern States, banks, municipalities, and associations all printed their own money.
  • The first Confederate currency demonstrated engraving and printing of the highest quality, and many of the notes were beautifully designed. Many issues contained portraits of Southern heroes, while others were of mythological deities, such as Ceres, goddess of agriculture. Other drawings showed business activities, including cotton picking and steamboating. However, the need for speed and the shortage of proper paper stock soon resulted in lowered quality of the currency. The South's impending defeat along with the excessive printing of the currency resulted in its rapid depreciation.
History of the Union Currency
  • When the Civil War started, there were two types of money in circulation in the North: The largest part was "hard" money - silver and gold coins of the U.S. Government; the rest was paper money issued by prominent state banks. As war progressed, more and more hard money disappeared as people began to hoard coins.
  • In 1862, the U.S. Government began issuing "Greenbacks" (as Federal currency became called) to supplement the states' paper money. Greenbacks were soon in widespread use, amounting to more than half of the currency in circulation. Fractional currency ("paper coin") also became prominently used.
  • The Federal government passed strict banking laws in 1863; these laws along with heavy taxes soon caused most of the paper money of the private banks to disappear. The laws did not become effective in the South until after the war was over in 1865.

Music From the Time Period:

Negro Spirituals

More Negro Spirituals


Understanding Spiritual from Different Time Periods

African American Sheet Music Civil War Time Period

Field Trip to the Civil War Museum in Kenosha:
Kenosha Civil War Museum Link

Reconstruction: (1865-1880)
The reconstruction period in the south was called the Civil Rights Movement. At this time people of color held political offices and had rights. Enetering into the early 1900's people of color lost those rights, thus begins the modern Civil Rights Movement.
Brain Pop
United Streaming - Reconstruction Clip
Read pages 46-53 in The Big Book of the Civil War by Joanne Mattern.
*There is so much more! Are we teaching a transaction (unit) or a transformation (what comes next???)